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Ovarian cysts can cause irregular bleeding and pelvic pain

In many cases they are asymptomatic. An on the spot diagnosis is easy with the aid of ultrasound. Sometimes a blood test or a more detailed MRI scan might be needed.

Management may be with hormones, or sometimes keyhole surgery is required. Some asymptomatic cysts are completely innocent and can just be monitored regularly.

Very occasionally, a cyst can leak the fluid it contains, or rupture, causing acute pain and sometimes collapse. Rarely the presence of a cyst results in the ovary twisting on itself. Whilst the former can often be dealt with using pain killers and rest, the latter invariably needs urgent surgery to untwist the ovary and save the ovary from permanent damage.