Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy affecting children all over the world.

The symptoms can be delayed (non-IgE mediated) or immediate (IgE mediated) or a mixture of the two. CMPA may affect a baby who is formula fed, combi fed and a breastfed baby can also be affected since dairy can pass through mother’s milk into the baby.

What causes CMPA?

The risk of developing CMPA increases if there is a family history of eczema, hay fever and food allergies. Environmental factors that may affect a baby’s gut health have also been shown to contribute.These include antibiotic use, the use of protein pump inhibitors such as omeprazole and being born via C-section.  Some research suggests that low blood vitamin D level is a risk factor for food allergy. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes to gastrointestinal infections, which may promote the development of food allergies.

What are the symptoms of CMPA?

There is a very large range of symptoms that may present in a child with CMPA.In some children, multiple symptoms can coexist whereas, in others, it may only be one symptom. For example, some children “only” have constipation whereas some may have colic, loose stools, eczema, and reflux. Allergy may be IgE mediated with rapid onset of symptoms or non-IgE mediated, producing more delayed symptoms.Some have a mixture of the two. Please see below for more information about the symptoms of CMPA.
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